Preventing aggression and maintaining good doggy mental health is a lifelong process
© Stacy Braslau-Schneck, CPDT
things you can do to ensure that your dog remains “friendly” and does
not have aggression problems:
your puppy and your dog
Expose your puppy
to new people, dogs, sounds, smells, and other experiences. Try to find
a variety of each for your dog to experience. Make each experience a “positive”
one; be generous with treats and games in the face of new situations. Teach
your pup that new things are opportunities to gain rewards, not something to fear.
this socialization throughout their lives. It is not enough to go to Puppy
Kindergarten; you must be sure that your puppy and dog learns that New Things
are Good Things throughout their life. It’s a “use it or lose
bad experiences with good ones
If your pup is hurt or frightened by a particular
event, make sure she experiences a number of similar events with positive outcomes
as soon as possible. For example, if your pup is scared once by a man
with a golf club, have her get her favorite treats from ten different men with
golf clubs. If your dog was attacked once by a dog of a certain breed,
make every effort for her to enjoy friendly interactions with other dogs of
that breed. (See Patricia McConnell’s excellent little book, “The
Cautious Canine“, if your dog already has issues with certain experiences.)
Handle your dog’s entire body, including head, feet,
tummy and tail. Practice sudden grabs and rushes. Without hurting
her, imitate the sorts of poking and pinching a young or mean child might do. Immediately after each bit of rough handling, reward your dog with
some of his favorite treats.
advantage of reward opportunities
If you have something to offer your dog that you
know she will enjoy, ask her to earn it through her actions. Before preparing
dinner or putting down the bowl, ask for a simple behavior your dog can perform,
such as “sit” or “down” or some trick you’re working on,
even “pay attention”. Before getting the leash out for your
walk, ask for some obedience. If your dog wants to meet another dog, and
you’re going to allow it, ask her to look at you first. Teach your dog
that you control all the goodies in your dog’s life, and that your dog can access
them by following your instructions. This is a “Nothing In Life Is
Free” process that puts you in charge and ensures that your dog will be
obedient in order to gain what he or she wants. (Click here for more information.)
Make sure your dog is getting
mental, physical and social exercise. Dogs are social predators who
originally developed relatively big brains to solve problems regarding finding
food and maintaining peaceful relations with their packmates. Many breeds
were further refined to solve particular problems such as finding hunting targets
or herding sheep. Don’t allow that brain to rot – or develop unfortunate
games that may involve property destruction!
Use work to eat programs: predators have
to do intense work to acquire food. Use clicker
training; stuffed food toys like Kongs, Kibble Nibbles, etc (see the Merchandise page), goodie ships, cardboard rolls, and socks; take some sort of class or dog sport.
Play “predatory” games, those that
involve the skills wild dogs and wolves would use for food acquisition, such
as fetch, tug, searching for toy, Kong, food, etc.; playing hide and seek.
See the Games Training Tip for more ideas. Allow
them to explore new areas – walk in new neighborhoods or hike along trails.
Allow dog-dog interactions, ideally off-leash
(in a safe, enclosed area). Even if your dog has only one or two “doggy
buddies”, make sure they get to meet frequently. Even dogs who “don’t
like other dogs” will benefit from the mental stimulation of having other
dogs around (unless your dog is actually fearful or aggressive!).
the Dog Parks page for parks and trails where you
can take your dog for a stimulating outing (in the San Jose area).
food-bowl exercises and object exchanges
Teach your dog that when you approach their food
bowl, it means something good is going to happen for your dog. While the
dog is eating, walk up and drop an extra special goodie in. NOTE: if your dog
eats faster, stiffens, freezes, growls or snaps at you when you try to do this,
STOP and consult a professional behaviorist – you already have a resource-guarding
“exchanging” or trading items that your dog has for things she finds
equally or more valuable. For example, offer the dog a piece of food when
she drops the tennis ball. Or offer a second tennis ball in exchange, if
your dog finds balls more valuable than food! If your dog is reluctant,
give them the reward when they drop their item but do not take it from them.
If your dog refuses to drop or growls, avoids you, or snaps, STOP and consult
a professional behaviorist!
moving the dog
Ask your dog to enter, and exit, his kennel, the
car, her bed, the couch, your bed, etc. Reward each move with praise and
a favorite treat (or other rewards, including toys, games, etc.). Teach your
dog that moving when you ask him to is worth his while. Praise the dog when
he moves out of your way, and teach him a better place to sleep than in doorways
or favorite pathways.
Dogs must learn how to
control their jaws, and they must learn that they can bite softly. It is
actually more important to teach a dog to use its jaws gently then to try to teach
it to never use its jaws – all dogs are capable of biting out of fear,
frustration, pain, or to protect valuable resources. It’s important
that when they do feel the need to bite, that they do so with control. In
the context of games, teach pups and dogs that their teeth hurt you and that your
fun interactions will end the moment they lose control of their teeth. See
the Puppy Play-Biting training tip.
Give your dog ample
opportunities to practice and sharpen her social skills. This will teach
your dog how to handle all sorts of situations with other dogs and give her confidence.
Start this as early as you can. Your vet may possibly
tell you to keep your young pup inside, away from other dogs; expert behaviorists
will tell you to go out and introduce your pup to as many friendly (and healthy!)
dogs as possible, and the latest policies from the American Veterinary Society
of Animal Behavior (AVSAB) encourage
early socialization as well. See the Whole Dog Journal‘s article
on preventing Parvo for more information on how to keep your pup healthy
and safe during their early weeks.
teasing and frustrating your dog
allow your dog to regularly witness opportunities he can’t have. Block his
view of people and dogs passing by – shut the curtains, move the couch, or put
up a more solid fence or visual barrier to the street. Don’t tease your
dog with toys (or allow others, including children, to do so).
dogs are frustrated when they are not allowed to meet other dogs they see, including
those they must pass on leash. Ask the other owner for permission and if
granted give your dogs a moment to greet each other and sniff all of the important
parts of each other (you can ask your dog to respond to a simple command such
as “watch me” or “sit” first). Make sure you hold the
leash loosely enough that your dog feels unrestrained and can perform all the
proper greeting rituals (see the Body Language page for more information). If your dog lunges or barks at other dogs, it’s possible
he’s just excited and already frustrated. You should consult a trainer or
behaviorist to evaluate whether your dog has an actual aggressive problem; you
could accidentally cause a problem to develop if you only add to his frustration.
Some dogs are frustrated by seeing bikes, cars,
or other potential “chase” objects go by and will get increasingly
reactive to them. Do not allow your dog to practice this.
using fear or physical punishment to control the dog
by definition are something the dog fears or finds painful or uncomfortable.
Since they change body chemistry, add to physical stress, and create the need
for escape/avoidance behaviors, they contribute to a fearful, unfriendly dog.
Use management tools such as head halters and leashes to physically control your
dog, and use reward-based training techniques to teach your dog how you want him
Much credit given to Jean Donaldson, with
great gratitude, for this Training Tip. For more information, see her excellent
Culture Clash and Dogs
Are From Neptune. Also read Patricia McConnell’s excellent book, The
Other End of the Leash.
If your dog is aggressive towards other dogs, you
may benefit greatly from a “Difficult Dog” or “Growl” class.
These classes teach management techniques and allow you to use desensitization
and counter-conditioning to change your dog’s reaction to other dogs, all in
a safe, controlled environment. In the San Francisco Bay Area, the following
places offer a dog aggression class (please note that listing here does not
necessarily mean a referral from Stacy’s Wag’N’Train):
Difficult Dog group classes, and one-on-one training,
Partnership with Daphne Robert-Hamilton, Morgan Hill and San Jose.
One-on-one behavior consultation at A
Step Beyond with Lisa Clifton-Bumpass in the East Bay
Society offers “DWA: Dogs with an Attitude”. It is six weeks of
class following a personal evaluation. More information is on their website
or call Nancy Frensley at (510) 845-7735 to make an appointment for a one-on-one
evaluation of your dog.
Humane Society offers a “Difficult Dog” class. They are usually
on three consecutive Saturdays, two hours apiece. Contact Trish King at
415 883-4621 x234
All material copyright Stacy Braslau-Schneck. Reprints for non-commercial use, and with the author’s permission only.
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